Understanding the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM): A Comprehensive Overview

Understanding the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM): A Comprehensive Overview

The Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) stands as a pivotal instrument crafted by the European Union (EU) to tackle the risk of carbon leakage. This mechanism addresses the scenario where stringent climate policies in one region lead businesses to relocate operations to areas with less stringent regulations, consequently resulting in no net reduction in global CO2 emissions. At its core, the CBAM seeks to level the playing field for both EU and non-EU producers, ensuring that imported goods’ prices accurately reflect their carbon content.

Key Products Covered in the Initial Phase: During its initial phase, the CBAM focuses on specific products:

  • Cement
  • Iron & Steel
  • Aluminium
  • Fertilisers
  • Electricity
  • Hydrogen

However, the product scope is subject to review at the end of the transitional period. This assessment aims to explore the feasibility of incorporating additional goods already covered by the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) and susceptible to carbon leakage. Products like certain downstream items and those identified as suitable candidates during negotiations, such as chemicals and polymers, will be considered. A detailed report will outline a timeline for their potential inclusion by 2030.

Timeline of CBAM Implementation: The CBAM commenced its transitional period on October 1, 2023, with the following timeline in place:

  • January 31, 2024: Deadline for submission of the first report
  • January 1, 2026: Launch of the Permanent system

Obligations for Importers and Producers: Importers and producers face specific obligations under the CBAM:

  • Reporting: Importers must report the emissions associated with imported goods during the transitional phase without immediate payment.
  • Purchase of CBAM Certificates: From 2026 onwards, importers must procure CBAM certificates corresponding to the carbon cost of their imported goods.
  • Verification: Importers must acquire verified data regarding the carbon content of their imported products, necessitating transparency and cooperation from non-EU producers.
  • Non- EU Producers: Must provide the importer with information on the embedded emissions resulting from the production of the product, providing at the same time very detailed information e.g. the production method, the amount of energy used for production, and many other parameters affecting the calculation of the embedded emissions.
  • Adjustments for Non-EU Carbon Pricing: The CBAM considers carbon pricing mechanisms in the country of origin to avoid double-charging for carbon when goods enter the EU, requiring proper documentation and verification.

CBAM Reporting Data Requirements: Detailed reporting requirements demand quarterly submissions in the CBAM Transitional Registry (Trade Portal). Reports must include various specifics, such as quantity of imports per customs procedure, Combined Nomenclature (CN) codes, country of origin, production methods, emissions data, and carbon pricing information.

Penalties for Non-Compliance: Non-compliance with reporting obligations will result in penalties ranging between EUR 10 and EUR 50 per tonne of unreported embedded emissions. These penalties will escalate in line with the European index of consumer prices for sustained non-compliance or repeated incomplete or incorrect reports.

Let’s take an example: Aluminium tube or pipe fittings (for example: couplings, elbows, sleeves) classified under 7609 00 00. If the data is not reported correctly in the CBAM report or is not reported at all – the penalty may range from 120.40 EUR to 602.00 EUR per 1 tonne of the imported product.

Understanding the nuances of CBAM, including its requirements, timeline, and penalties, is crucial for stakeholders navigating this transformative mechanism within the EU’s climate policy framework. Compliance ensures a level playing field while addressing global emissions concerns.

Navigating Export Classification:
ITAR vs. EAR

Navigating Export Classification: ITAR vs. EAR

Exporting goods and technology across international borders is a complex process governed by a web of regulations and classifications. Two critical regulatory frameworks that businesses and individuals must understand are the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) and the Export Administration Regulations (EAR). These regulations play a pivotal role in determining the legality and controls placed on exports from the United States.

Export Classification: The Basics

Before delving into the distinctions between ITAR and EAR, it’s essential to grasp the fundamentals of export classification. In the context of these regulations, export classification involves categorizing items, technology, and software into specific groups or control lists based on their nature and intended use. This classification determines the level of export controls and restrictions that apply to them.

International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR)

  1. Scope: ITAR primarily deals with the export of defense articles, services, and related technical data that have significant military applications. This includes items such as firearms, military vehicles, ammunition, and sensitive technologies.
  2. Government Oversight: The U.S. Department of State’s Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC) administers ITAR. It is a stricter and more tightly controlled framework, as the primary focus is on safeguarding national security and preventing the proliferation of military technologies.
  3. Registration Requirement: Companies dealing with ITAR-controlled items are required to register with DDTC and obtain the necessary licenses for exporting these items. This involves rigorous background checks and screening.
  4. Export Licenses: ITAR-controlled items typically require individual export licenses for each transaction. These licenses are specific to the recipient and the purpose of the export.
  5. Stringent Compliance: ITAR compliance demands a high level of security and documentation, including record-keeping, screening of employees, and regular audits.

Export Administration Regulations (EAR)

  1. Scope: EAR encompasses a broader range of items, including commercial goods, dual-use items (items that have both civilian and military applications), and some military items that do not fall under ITAR. It also covers technology and software.
  2. Government Oversight: The U.S. Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) administers EAR. It focuses on promoting legitimate trade while maintaining national security.
  3. Registration Requirement: Unlike ITAR, EAR does not require registration with BIS for most exporters. However, some specific export transactions may still require licenses.
  4. Export Licenses: EAR generally employs a system of general licenses, which means that many exports can proceed without the need for an individual license. Exporters must still ensure compliance with the regulations, including checking against restricted party lists.
  5. Compliance Flexibility: EAR offers more flexibility compared to ITAR, allowing for license exceptions and a broader range of export authorizations.

Key Differences

  1. Scope: ITAR is narrower in scope, focusing exclusively on defense-related items, while EAR covers a wider range of goods, including dual-use items.
  2. Regulatory Authority: ITAR is regulated by the U.S. Department of State, emphasizing national security, whereas EAR is administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce, with a focus on balancing national security and promoting legitimate trade.
  3. Licensing Requirements: ITAR typically requires individual licenses for each transaction, whereas EAR often relies on general licenses and exceptions, reducing the administrative burden on exporters.
  4. Registration: ITAR mandates registration for companies dealing with controlled items, while EAR does not require such registration for most exporters.

Export classification is a crucial aspect of international trade, and understanding the differences between ITAR and EAR is vital for compliance and successful export operations. While ITAR is more restrictive and focused on defense-related items, EAR covers a broader spectrum of products. Businesses involved in international trade should carefully assess their products and technology to determine which regulations apply to them, ensuring that they navigate the complex world of export classification with precision and compliance. Failure to do so can result in severe legal consequences, making it imperative for exporters to stay informed and up-to-date with evolving regulations.

Denied Party Screening in Export Trade Compliance: Ensuring Legal and Ethical International Trade

Denied Party Screening in Export Trade Compliance: Ensuring Legal and Ethical International Trade

Exporting goods and services across international borders is a cornerstone of the global economy. However, this process is not without its challenges and risks, particularly when it comes to compliance with various laws and regulations. One critical aspect of export trade compliance is denied party screening. This process is vital for businesses to ensure that they do not engage in transactions with individuals or entities that are prohibited or restricted by government authorities. In this blog, we will explore what denied party screening is, its importance in international trade, and how businesses can effectively implement it to maintain legal and ethical trade practices.

What is Denied Party Screening?

Denied party screening, also known as restricted party screening or sanctions screening, is a crucial process that helps businesses and organizations ensure that they do not engage in trade activities with individuals, companies, or organizations that are denied, restricted, or sanctioned by government authorities. These entities could be located anywhere in the world and may be prohibited due to a variety of reasons, including national security concerns, human rights violations, or violations of international agreements.

Denied party screening is primarily focused on three types of lists:

  1. Government Lists: These lists are maintained by government agencies and include individuals, entities, and countries subject to sanctions or restrictions. For example, the U.S. Department of Commerce maintains the Entity List and the Denied Persons List, while the U.S. Department of the Treasury maintains the Specially Designated Nationals (SDN) List.
  2. International Lists: These lists are created and maintained by international organizations, such as the United Nations and the European Union. They often target entities involved in activities that violate international laws or agreements.
  3. Internal Lists: Some organizations create their own internal lists of individuals and entities that they have determined pose a risk to their business. These lists can help companies protect themselves from engaging in risky transactions.

The Importance of Denied Party Screening in Export Trade Compliance

  1. Legal Compliance: One of the primary reasons for denied party screening is to ensure compliance with export control laws and regulations. Failure to screen transactions can result in severe penalties, including fines and imprisonment.
  2. National Security: Governments use denied party lists to prevent sensitive technologies and goods from falling into the wrong hands. Screening helps protect national security interests by preventing the transfer of controlled items to prohibited parties.
  3. Reputation Management: Engaging in transactions with denied parties can damage a company’s reputation. By conducting thorough screening, businesses can demonstrate their commitment to ethical trade practices.
  4. Financial Risks: Transactions with denied parties can result in financial losses due to penalties and legal fees. Screening helps mitigate these risks and protects a company’s financial health.

Implementing Effective Denied Party Screening

To ensure effective denied party screening in export trade compliance, businesses should consider the following steps:

  1. Identify Applicable Lists: Determine which government and international lists are relevant to your business. This may vary depending on your industry and the countries you operate in.
  2. Automate the Screening Process: Use specialized software or services that can automate the screening process. These tools can quickly cross-reference your business partners against the relevant lists, reducing the risk of manual errors.
  3. Regular Updates: Ensure that your screening database is up-to-date. Denied party lists change frequently, and it’s crucial to have the most current information.
  4. Employee Training: Train employees involved in export activities to understand the importance of denied party screening and how to use screening tools effectively.
  5. Record-keeping: Maintain detailed records of your screening activities, including any false positives or negatives and the steps taken to resolve them.
  6. Screening at All Stages: Implement screening at all stages of a transaction, from initial contact with a potential partner to the final shipment of goods or services.

Denied party screening is a critical component of export trade compliance. It helps businesses maintain legal and ethical trade practices, protect national security, and avoid reputational and financial risks. By implementing effective denied party screening processes, organizations can ensure that they only engage in transactions with reputable and permissible partners, thereby promoting a responsible and compliant approach to international trade. In an increasingly interconnected global marketplace, staying on the right side of trade regulations is not only a legal requirement but also a strategic advantage for businesses looking to thrive in the world of international commerce.

Best Practices During a Customs Audit/How to Ensure You Have a Compliant Operation

Effective Post-Entry Processes for Maintaining Compliance with U.S. Customs in Global Trade

Compliance audits conducted by U.S. Customs can be a daunting prospect for any business engaged in global import and export trade. Mitigating the risk of a failed compliance audit should be a priority for organizations seeking to run a compliant operation. The key to a compliant customs audit is to remain organized in post entry processes. Ensuring comprehensive document management, process accuracy, and visibility into import data are critical steps along the path to a successful compliance audit.

What are the standard requests during a CBP compliance audit?

When it comes to trade compliance audits conducted by Customs and Border Protection (CBP), standard requests often include a variety of documents. CBP will usually make inquiries about a company’s internal policies involving its compliance framework, as well as the steps taken in regard to payment systems and processes used for the import or export of goods.

Conversations between the auditor and personnel involved with trade compliance may cover the specifics of product descriptions, inventory tracking methods, or even drawing attention to potential areas of risk that could require additional diligence when conducting business over international borders.

  • Are there any existing prior disclosures with Customs? If a company discovers an error in their import transactions, it’s advisable to inform CBP instead of waiting for them to discover it. By submitting a Prior Disclosure, which acknowledges the import law violation with no intention to harm, CBP is likely to impose less severe penalties compared to if the company attempts to conceal the mistake.
  • Are there documented policies and procedures? If yes, please provide a copy. It is essential to have documented policies and procedures for global trade to ensure compliance with laws and regulations. These policies and procedures should cover topics such as export controls, sanctions compliance, customs compliance, and anti-corruption measures. Having clear and comprehensive policies and procedures not only helps to avoid legal and financial risks but also contributes to building trust with customers and stakeholders. It is recommended that companies regularly review and update their global trade policies and procedures to stay current with changing laws and regulations.
  • Is there a post entry review process that is implemented? Post entry review processes are designed to ensure compliance with customs regulations and to identify any errors or discrepancies in trade documentation that may result in penalties or delays in shipments. Post entry reviews typically involve a thorough examination of trade data, including import and export declarations, invoices, and other supporting documents.

What does a compliant operation look like?

A compliant global trade operation is one that adheres to all applicable international trade regulations, laws, and policies while still efficiently and effectively conducting business across borders. Such an operation would have robust compliance programs that ensure all aspects of their global supply chain, from sourcing and procurement to shipping and delivery, are fully compliant with trade regulations. It would also maintain accurate and complete compliance documents of all transactions and communications and have a system in place to regularly review and update its compliance policies and procedures. In addition, a compliant global trade operation would have a culture of compliance and ethics that is ingrained at all levels of the organization and upheld by all employees and stakeholders. Ultimately, a compliant global trade operation is one that prioritizes legal and ethical trade practices, ensuring that it maintains a positive reputation and avoids legal and financial risks.

The Key Areas of Global Trade Risk Management

  • Risk – How do you classify? How do you ensure the correct value is declared to Customs? What process do you use to qualify for FTAs? What documentation do you use to qualify? Are you being proactive in this process?
    Let me know if you have any questions.
  • Savings – How are you utilizing the HTS and FTA tools? Strategies i.e. duty deferral.
  • Efficiencies – Do you utilize a centralized location for part information? Or are you using separate documentation to qualify? Are you opening yourself up to risk by using multiple companies/teams when one company/team could handle it all?

Steps for managing a CF28 – a formal request of information from CBP

If you’ve imported goods into the United States, there’s a possibility of receiving a Customs Form 28 (CF-28) related to your entry. When dealing with a CF-28 (Request for Information) from Customs, it is important to react fast and efficiently to avoid any potential delays or penalties. Here are some tactics that can help in dealing with a CF-28:

  • Have an action plan for receiving a CF-28: As a business, you should have an established action plan in place to deal with CF-28 requests from Customs. This includes identifying the person responsible for handling such requests, establishing a timeline for responding, and ensuring that all necessary documents and information are readily available.
  • Respond immediately: When you receive a CF-28 from Customs, it is important to respond immediately. The clock starts ticking as soon as you receive the request, and delaying your response can result in further inquiries, penalties, or even seizure of goods.
  • Call Customs about their inquiry: If you have any questions or concerns about the CF-28, it is important to contact Customs as soon as possible. This can help you clarify any doubts you may have and ensure that you are providing the correct information.
  • Talk with your Customs Broker, Trade Consultant or Legal Counsel: If you have a Customs Broker, Trade Consultant or Legal Counsel, it is important to involve them in the process. They can provide valuable insight and advice on how to handle the CF-28 and ensure that you are complying with all Customs regulations.
  • Fully answer all parts of the CF-28: It is important to fully answer all parts of the CF-28 and provide all requested information. Failing to do so can result in delays, penalties, or further inquiries from Customs. Ensure that all information provided is accurate and up-to-date, and that all necessary supporting documents are included.

How can an importer ensure they are managing a compliant operation?

Any importer can achieve compliance with the expertise of the professionals at Copper Hill Global Trade Compliance. The Copper Hill team can assess the importer’s current trade practices to identify areas where improvements can be made to ensure compliance with relevant regulations and laws. Based on this assessment, we create a customized compliance program that is tailored to the importer’s specific needs. This program includes a range of tools and resources to support the importer in managing and monitoring their trade activities, including training, software, and ongoing support. By working with Copper Hill, the importer can be confident that they are following best practices and meeting all regulatory requirements, reducing the risk of penalties or legal action.

Contact Copper Hill for all your customs risk management needs!